A communicable disease is an illness or infection that can be spread from person to person, animal to animal, or from place to place. These diseases are the leading cause of sickness and death in the world. In the United States, communicable disease ranks third. Here’s how to avoid getting sick! Viruses, Bacteria, Pneumococci, and Staphylococci are all common disease causes.
Viruses are tiny microorganisms that contain genetic material and are surrounded by a protective protein coating. These microbes cause many familiar communicable diseases we’ve grown accustomed to. Viruses can cause serious illness by invading normal cells and using them to multiply themselves and infect other people. Viruses can also kill, damage, or change cells to multiply. Different viruses attack different parts of the body. Fortunately, your immune system has some protective mechanisms to fight off most types of infectious disease.
The best way to avoid acquiring a virus is to practice good hygiene and limit contact with infected people. In some cases, such as the flu, you can lower your risk of acquiring this disease by getting vaccinated. Viruses can also infect your digestive system, so you may want to avoid close contact with infected people during the cold and flu season. However, this type of virus can still be contagious and requires medical attention.
Bacteria and viruses are responsible for many common infectious diseases. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are ubiquitous in our environment. Most bacteria are beneficial and aid in digestion. Pathogenic bacteria, however, are the cause of many diseases and spread from person to person. Read on to learn more about bacteria’s role in spreading disease. These microorganisms can cause various illnesses, including strep throat and tuberculosis.
Bacterial infections can be acquired in several ways. Some are airborne, such as tetanus. These infections are spread through contaminated water, food, fecal matter, and saliva. Other forms are skin-based, such as impetigo. Infected skin is susceptible to infection by bacteria, but direct contact can also spread the disease. In addition to contaminated skin, flies can also carry the disease.
Pneumococci are bacteria that cause a variety of diseases, including pneumonia. Other conditions caused by pneumococci include meningitis, sinusitis, and ear infections. People can spread these bacteria by coughing. In some cases, the bacteria can even lead to death. Children and people of certain ethnicities are at particular risk for contracting this disease. Also, people with certain diseases can spread bacteria through bodily fluids.
Pneumococci are highly infectious, so vaccination against them is critical to prevent serious illness. The most common strains are S. pneumonia, clostridium pneumococci, and enzobacillus. Although the pneumococcal disease is treatable, early diagnosis and treatment are critical. In addition, invasive pneumococcal disease can be life-threatening, so vaccination is essential.
Pathogenic staphylococci are ubiquitous bacteria. Up to 30% of healthy adults are transiently carriers. Infected people can transfer the bacteria to others via their skin and anterior nares. Hospitals are particularly high-risk areas for staphylococcal infections. While carriers may not experience symptoms, they may contract a staphylococcal infection. Unlike other types of bacteria, a carrier’s infection is more likely to be caused by an infected strain.
People who are infected with staph bacteria may develop symptoms of diarrhea, endocarditis, and fever. Symptoms of staph infection may include high fever, fatigue, chest pain, and fluid buildup in the arms or legs. In some cases, the bacteria may cause toxic shock syndrome, including a sunburn-like rash and fever. When you’re infected with staphylococci, washing your hands after touching contaminated surfaces is the best way to avoid spreading the infection.
The bacteria that cause chlamydia infections are transmitted through vaginal and oral intercourse. Usually, half to three-quarters of infected individuals show no symptoms. However, in some cases, the bacteria may be transferred to the eyes or anus through the fluids produced by the penis or urethra of an infected individual. Chlamydia infections are treatable with antibiotics.
Infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is a serious and potentially fatal condition. It begins as follicular conjunctivitis, a mild condition characterized by swollen eyelids. Repeated infections may cause eyelid scarring, inverted eyelashes, and even globe scarring. Chlamydia trachomatis infection may lead to perihepatitis and epididymitis in pregnant women.