North Korean exile Jihyun Park: ‘The pen can kill harmless individuals, however it may well additionally kill the satan’
As we settle into our nook desk at Rowntree’s Cafe in Bury city centre, my North Korean lunch companion is chatting to our Indonesian waitress about their adopted dwelling. I’m nonetheless reeling from Jihyun Park’s current memoir, which I completed the night time earlier than.
In 1996, Park was working as a maths instructor on the outskirts of town of Chongjin in North Korea’s north-east — a job secured, partly, by her mom bribing native college officers with Chinese language cigarettes and dried octopus.
The nation was present process a vicious famine, and plenty of of her pupils had stopped turning as much as class. She would see them round city — malnourished, filthy, foraging for meals. Some had been as younger as 4 or 5 years outdated. She remembers one fishing in a sewer for just a few grains of rice.
In the future, she noticed a boy hunched towards a wall on the railway station. It was considered one of her favorite pupils, who had professed his want to develop into a health care provider in order that he might take care of his classmates.
“Eyes broad in despair, I lined my mouth with each fingers and held my breath,” she writes in The Arduous Street Out. “[It was] the boy who would by no means develop into a health care provider as a result of his life had come to an finish on the age of 13 as he huddled towards a wall. The little barefoot boy who nonetheless haunts me to at the present time.”
Since that point, Park has endured an additional litany of horrors: tricked into servitude in rural China, trafficked, raped, crushed, separated from her younger son, despatched again to North Korea and thrown into a jail camp earlier than re-entering China and making an unsuccessful try at escaping throughout the Gobi desert to Mongolia.
However after I meet her in Bury, a former Lancashire mill city now nestled within the Manchester commuter belt, she is radiating happiness. Fourteen years after she got here to Britain as a refugee, Park appears eager to dissect the foibles of her adopted compatriots and impervious to the gloom that has taken maintain of the remainder of the nation.
“Once I arrived, what I observed about individuals in England is just not that they’re wealthy, however that they’re all the time smiling, that they’re relaxed and don’t appear to have any worries,” she enthuses.
“Once I got here right here it was the primary time I had seen that. Most individuals on the planet are good — however particularly in my city Bury and in England, as a result of they’re instructing me about happiness and about freedom.”
Rowntree’s is a quintessential British cafe specialising in cooked breakfasts and fish and chips. We each order the latter — mine with mushy peas, hers with gravy — and every get a can of Coke. I inform Park my very own motive to be a bit of sentimental: my father was born and raised in neighbouring Bolton and prides himself on recognizing a fellow Lancastrian a mile away. My solely remorse is that I’ve forgotten to hunt out a serving of black pudding, in style in each Bury and North Korea and maybe the one factor that connects the 2 locations aside from Park herself.
She was born in Chongjin in 1968 right into a modest household that for a lot of her youth was trustworthy and obedient to the North Korean regime. However her father grew more and more embittered because the household’s lowly class standing restricted his kids’s entry to the schools they deserved to attend. Her mom, a part of a era of North Korean girls who had taken to the black market to supply for his or her households, was participating in more and more dangerous illicit industrial actions.
In 1997, Park’s brother Jeong-ho abandoned from the military. Her mom had already left for China, on the run from indignant collectors after a enterprise transaction went flawed. Within the information that “if Jeong-ho will get arrested, all of us get arrested”, it was determined that Park, her sister, brother-in-law and niece ought to escape to China. The choice was unavoidable, however heart-rending: her father was too sick to go away his mattress and they’d by no means see him once more.
“My father by no means instructed me what he thought till he lastly instructed us to go away the nation,” she says. “He was a courageous particular person; he inspired us regardless that he didn’t know if we’d survive, and [that he] would by no means see us once more. That’s why I’ll by no means hand over encouraging North Koreans to be free.”
After a number of harrowing years in rural China, throughout which era she gave delivery to her first son, Park moved to the north-eastern Chinese language metropolis of Harbin. In 2004, she was ratted out to the authorities and deported again to Chongjin, the place she was left to rot in a detention centre. She was launched solely as a result of she had a gangrenous leg and the guards “didn’t need one other loss of life on the books”.
She bribed her method again into China and was reunited together with her son. Their try to flee to Mongolia failed, however throughout that aborted mission she met her current husband, a warm-hearted North Korean whom she credit with saving their lives.
In 2008, the household had been granted asylum within the UK and moved to Manchester. They finally settled in Bury, the place Park and her husband had one other son and a daughter. I ask her what else she observed about her new neighbours.
“I by no means drink, I by no means smoke, so for me it was obscure what number of women right here get drunk, they smoke and so they shout on the street.” She is talking affectionately and wholly with out reproach. “And the opposite factor is that mates use the F-word to one another! They aren’t one another’s enemies, so why do they use these phrases?”
As soon as in Britain, Park started a brand new chapter as a human-rights activist and advocate for the rights of refugees. However she rose to nationwide prominence in 2021, when she was chosen to face — in the end unsuccessfully — as a council candidate for the Conservative get together.
She places her resolution to hitch the get together all the way down to Brexit, although as she later explains, this was not the difficulty that might finally push her into working for native workplace.
“I joined the Conservative get together in 2017, after the Brexit referendum,” she says. “I grew to become a Eurosceptic after a visit to the European parliament in 2015 for a gathering about refugee points. I used to be shocked! I had learnt that Britain was an ‘empire nation’, so why was it like a colony of all these different nations?”
She likens the EU to a North Korean condominium constructing, which is often presided over by an inminbanjan, usually an older married lady who displays each side of its residents’ lives on behalf of the state.
“Britain is a rustic which ought to have its personal life, not managed by different European nations like Germany or France,” she says. “When Brexit occurred, I used to be actually completely satisfied. I’ll by no means remorse my resolution, and I nonetheless assist it.”
The cafe is busy, and I’m wondering what number of of our fellow diners share her Brexit convictions. I ask her about Boris Johnson, who on the time of our assembly is but to be defenestrated by Conservative MPs. Given her staunch assist for leaving the EU, I anticipate enthusiasm. However the temperature drops.
“I’m actually dissatisfied. He broke my coronary heart and the hearts of many, many individuals,” she says. She was revolted by the unlawful events in Downing Avenue throughout coronavirus lockdowns. “He has damaged legal guidelines — it’s not regular. He has carried out nice issues, however he’s not our chief these days and I hope he resigns.”
Did the “partygate” scandal resonate together with her as a result of, like many Britons through the pandemic, she was not given the prospect to say a correct farewell to a beloved relative? “Sure, individuals had been dying every single day and I felt helpless. It jogged my memory of the trauma in North Korea,” she says.
That feeling of helplessness inspired her to begin gathering and delivering meals and medical provides to susceptible individuals within the city. “That’s why I began volunteering, and why I made a decision to face as a candidate in a neighborhood election.”
As a Conservative get together member and advocate for the rights of refugees, what does she make of the federal government’s plans to move migrants looking for asylum within the UK to Rwanda?
“When the coverage was first introduced, I agreed with it as a result of it’s meant to cope with the deaths [from] unlawful crossings of the Channel on account of human trafficking,” she says. “I perceive the individuals within the boats. Once we had been attempting to get to Mongolia, it was both loss of life or survival, and we had a 50/50 probability. Human trafficking doesn’t simply kill the bodily physique, it kills the soul.
“However what makes me actually indignant is refugees being despatched again to Afghanistan, Syria and different nations the place there are not any human rights. That makes me actually indignant! We aren’t unlawful individuals — we’re people from nations that destroyed our rights.”
As we speak, a transparent distinction emerges between huge common points corresponding to refugee rights, human trafficking, sexual violence towards girls and the predations of totalitarian regimes on the one hand, and questions relating extra narrowly to British home, native and get together politics on the opposite.
For Park, the previous class relates on to her personal experiences. These are the causes about which she has sturdy emotions, on which she is a vocal public advocate.
However her life as a Conservative get together member and a council candidate seems to be one thing else. Paradoxically, her entry into native politics and campaigning on points corresponding to fly-tipping had been expressions of her proper to a non-public life — a life that the Kim regime had made unattainable.
“Folks ask me why I’m a Conservative. However I’m simply expressing my voice. I don’t do it as a result of I assist a celebration. I do it as a result of I’m an activist, I need to assist individuals. I’ve freedom of alternative,” she says.
“That is my hometown. Once I do my human rights activism, I’m sturdy, with a loud voice. However right here in Bury, I’m completely totally different. I’m with individuals visiting the market, shopping for greens and fish, laughing collectively. I sit within the again backyard with a cup of tea. In North Korea, there isn’t a distinction between work and life — it’s simply politics, politics, politics.”
In case you had been questioning in regards to the fish and chips, they hit the spot. Each glad, we take a stroll via the city centre and sit on a bench close to a statue of Robert Peel, a Nineteenth-century Conservative prime minister and considered one of Bury’s most well-known sons. The little sq. is calm and nice, with pubs on one facet and an Anglican church on the opposite.
I ask Park about China. Arriving there after her household’s escape from North Korea in 1997, she realised that she had successfully been offered into slavery. She was raped by a “marriage-broker” and forcibly married to a neighborhood farmer. In her memoir, the brutality she experiences in North Korea comes predominantly by the hands of the state. However in China it appears to come back from the society round her.
58 The Rock, Bury BL9 0PB
Fish and chips (with mushy peas or gravy) x2 £16.70
Coca-Cola x2 £2.40
Park’s story shines a lightweight on the truth that, for many years, the one method for a lot of North Korean girls to flee the regime has been by promoting themselves (or being offered, usually tricked and knowledgeable solely when it’s too late) as wives to Chinese language farmers in a area the place most native girls depart to seek out jobs within the cities.
She describes being taken to “a form of exhibition corridor the place an public sale was going down . . . It was not merely a market the place males got here to purchase girls. Total households got here to buy staff — slaves to plough their fields as an alternative of oxen.”
As a result of these girls haven’t any authorized rights in China, they usually haven’t any authorized declare to the youngsters born of those marriages, forcing them to decide on between remaining in servitude or working away and by no means seeing their kids once more. In a single devastating passage in her memoir, Park reveals that the individuals who offered her to the traffickers behind her again had been her personal mom and sister.
“The cash this marriage will herald will save our household. We shall be grateful to you to the tip of our days,” her mom instructed her after she realised she had been tricked.
As we sit on the bench, I ask her how she feels now about her mom, with whom she has no technique of contact. “I’m nonetheless indignant at my mom. However I additionally perceive she had no alternative. She had to consider the entire household. They trusted me, and I saved their lives.” She wipes away a tear. “However nonetheless, the reminiscence is painful. I’m not solely a mom, I’m a mom’s baby as properly.”
I really feel wretched about asking her to revisit these instances. However she seems reinvigorated, as if reminded why she was assembly me within the first place.
“However it additionally means I’ve an obligation to talk out, as a result of I’m a really free particular person. It’s not solely about getting info to North Koreans, however about getting it to South Koreans and all people else too. Too many journalists write about Kim Jong Un’s coiffure, or if he likes Swiss cheese, and never in regards to the crimes he’s committing.”
How does one particular person carry a lot — the ache of a household misplaced and life destroyed, and the enjoyment and problem of a brand new household and a brand new life in such an unfamiliar place?
She credit her household and her memoir’s co-author, Seh-lynn Chai, who’s from South Korea, with serving to her confront her previous and unearth fragments of completely satisfied recollections from her North Korean life.
“It’s not one particular person carrying all this. Seh-lynn saved my life, she gave me happiness and smiles. I share it with others, I share it with you, you share it via this interview. The pen can kill harmless individuals, however it may well additionally kill the satan.”
I get a bit of emotional. Within the three weeks that I’ve been again dwelling within the UK after a yr in South Korea, she is the one particular person I meet to specific any contentment, or any optimism in regards to the future.
“England remains to be a free and democratic nation, not as a result of solely English individuals dwell right here, however as a result of English individuals and refugees dwell collectively.” Robert Peel is peeking over her shoulder. “English individuals train us the language and the tradition, and we inform them about freedom and why it will be important. That’s why the nation remains to be sturdy.”
She returns to her favorite topic. “I really like being within the north of England. It’s relaxed and it’s pretty speaking to individuals. You realize the neighbours, you clear up some issues collectively.” She giggles. “I really like being a northerner.”
Christian Davies is the FT’s Seoul bureau chief
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