Health Economics Review Open Access

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Springer Nature has opened the Health Economics Review for open access publishing, allowing anyone to view the full text of published articles. Open access publishing means that all articles are made freely available online, and articles published by Springer Nature will be preserved in digital archives for the foreseeable future. As a result, the health Economics Review has an Impact Factor of 2.306.

Cost-effectiveness analysis

The concept of cost-effectiveness in health economics is a useful tool for comparing competing therapies. However, this method does not address every question a therapeutic intervention can answer—other factors, such as practicality, safety, and adverse effects, may be more important than cost-effectiveness. Therefore, cost-effectiveness alone is insufficient to determine whether a therapy is worth covering. However, cost-effectiveness analysis can be useful for policymakers, payers, and patients to make an informed decision on what is worth paying for.

Because reimbursement rates for new drugs are often high, the use of cost-effectiveness analysis is limited. In addition, it may not be possible to evaluate all treatments equally. To avoid these problems, it is important to identify the costs and benefits of each treatment option. Cost-effectiveness analysis in Health Economics Review aims to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of treatments. Ultimately, the results of these studies can be used to make decisions regarding coverage.

The authors emphasize the need for cross-sector collaboration in health economics. In their paper, Walker et al. introduce a cross-sector framework for the economic evaluation of public health interventions. The authors also consider the role of multiple sectors and encourage transparency in cross-sector economic evaluation. However, the use of economic evidence in health economics remains limited. In some cases, this may be because economic evaluations are not addressing multiple stakeholder priorities or fail to capture non-health outcomes.

Incomplete markets

The market for health care resources is not perfect, as a perfect market will allocate resources in the most efficient manner. However, incomplete markets have inherent characteristics that make them unsuitable for allocation, and this article will describe them. It also discusses the possible consequences of an inefficient market. Finally, we will discuss what makes a health market incomplete. Hopefully, it will be helpful for the reader. In the meantime, you can learn more about health economics and incomplete markets.

Incomplete markets affect aggregate consumption when liquidity is scarce. Without liquidity, it is difficult for households to smooth income fluctuations or cushion the effect of permanent labor income shocks. An extreme example isolates the strongest case for incomplete markets. The result is that aggregate consumption remains largely unchanged. Even when liquidity is scarce, consumers still react to changes in interest rates and prices as if they were in a representative agent model.

The calculation of discount factors requires computing the reference equilibrium of the market. This is a difficult task, but it is necessary to avoid a situation where the equilibrium is unstable. The equations used in an equilibrium analysis are also not easily accessible for non-experts. Therefore, this paper aims to explain the model. An incomplete market model can be used to help explain the complex interactions between a health care system and its environment.

Uncertainty in health care

As a sociological issue, uncertainty is a strong starting point to understanding the hidden curriculum and hegemony inherent to the profession of medicine. Likewise, uncertainty is relevant for the development of practical support systems. For example, the study of uncertainty in health care should focus on how professional ontologies and the practice of uncertainty work are intertwined. It may also be helpful to understand the role of knowledge production in the medical training process, such as developing clinical decision-making guidelines for individual patients.

Although uncertainty is essential to the profession of medicine, the discomfort it causes in clinicians can hinder open communication and undermine the relationship between patient and provider. When clinicians cannot effectively communicate uncertainty to patients, they create a false sense of certainty that can create distrust. Furthermore, the lack of information regarding a diagnosis can lead to overstated expectations and misdiagnoses, resulting in adverse outcomes and increased costs. Ultimately, uncertainty in health care should be addressed by integrating knowledge and experience with the principles of science and the philosophy of secular ethics.

There are two types of uncertainty in health care. A high uncertainty in decision-making characterizes the first type, and the second is known as epistemic uncertainty. Epistemic uncertainty describes incomplete knowledge and occurs when the decision-maker is confronted with an unknown or a limited amount of scientific knowledge. Both types of uncertainty are present in every aspect of health care. They can also occur in any medical situation, including the diagnosis of an illness.

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Spain’s health budget

The study estimates that the COVID-19 pandemic could cost Spain’s health budget EUR9,357 million in 2020, based on retrospective data from SARS-CoV2 patients. It also estimates the costs of drugs and laboratory tests. The study’s findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic will have a much higher impact on Spain’s health budget than many other illnesses, such as diabetes and cancer.

Although the government of Spain initially considered the coronavirus a low threat, its participation in mobilizations caused a stir, especially when the health situation in neighboring Italy was already so serious. As a result, Spain’s emergency was declared only five days after mobilizations began. In addition, the government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic required a massive reduction in its health budget.

Despite these challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic presented the ultimate test for decentralized and federal systems. The authors of this article analyze the Spanish asymmetrical decentralization system and how it has influenced regional health management. They use multidisciplinary tools to examine the Spanish health budget and highlight the flaws and shortcomings of the country’s decentralized health system.

The Spanish economy is more dependent on tourism than any other country in the European Union. Tourism contributes 14% of GDP in Spain compared to just 9.5 percent in the European Union. However, Spain’s economy is less dependent on heavy industry and scientific and professional activities. Therefore, in the event of a pandemic, Spain’s economy could suffer a major blow. In addition, the impact of COVID-19 is unlikely to be limited to health costs.

Community-based health insurance in Ethiopia

Using community-based health insurance in Ethiopia has many benefits. The system pools members’ contributions to a collective fund to cover health care costs in local health centers. It is also accepted at hospitals if lower-level health facilities have referred members. It provides women and children with financial security while empowering them to access health care. But is it all worth it? What are the challenges? How can community-based health insurance in Ethiopia improve women’s and their children’s lives?

Increasing attention has been paid to community-based health insurance, which may provide an alternative to user fees in many developing countries. For example, a pilot program in Ethiopia was launched in 2011 and integrated with the country’s flagship social protection scheme, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP). Researchers analyzed the reasons for non-enrolment in the PSNP, including socio-economic factors, knowledge of the program, and willingness to pay for health services.

The study also identified that low socioeconomic status and PSNP participation were associated with higher rates of CBHI enrolment. Since CBHI is often not available to the poorest groups, these findings call for further research. However, existing CBHI studies have focused on non-PSNP households, which limits the study’s ability to identify barriers and assess the program’s impact on the poor.

HIV/AIDS is leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa

AIDS is eradicating decades of progress toward extending life span in sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, deaths from HIV/AIDS have risen significantly in this region, with the largest increase in mortality occurring among adults aged 20-49 years. This age group represents the largest share of the continent’s population, and the disease is robbing these individuals of their most productive years. Although many governments in the region denied the disease for many years, numerous public health education initiatives have been launched to combat this devastating epidemic.

In 2017, the Global Burden of Disease study found that 75% of all deaths due to HIV infection occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. This increase in HIV prevalence is partly due to an increased number of people living with the disease. It is estimated that 71% of people with HIV live in this region. The proportion of those living with HIV in this region remained high at nearly 70%, even if the rate of new infections was falling.

Although HIV/AIDS has emerged as the leading cause of death in sub-Saharian countries, differences in the rates of HIV infection are striking. In sub-Saharan Africa, 2.2 million people died in 2001 from this disease. To address this epidemic, policymakers and program implementers must consider the disparity between the estimated number of deaths and actual infection rates.

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